All Tomorrow’s Parties: the changing face of European Party Politics addresses the challenges today’s political parties are confronted with, such as rapid changes in societies, technologies and politics as a whole. Democracy in Europe is now a multilevel governance system with a sometimes opaque interdependence of policies, institutions and actors, such as entrepreneurs, media and lobbyists. At the same time, society is changing, a result of the age of freedom, self-determination and globalisation. Votes for political parties increasingly fluctuate, providing less and less of a stable base because of the fragmentation of society. Representation itself is guided by changing popular moods, referred to in Germany as Stimmungsdemokratie (‘mood democracy’). In European party democracies this has had an impact on all political forces, especially on the mainstream parties. For the parties of tomorrow the central challenge will be to implement new, realistic forms of participation without surrendering political leadership.